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Traductoare - temperatura

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Măsurarea temperaturii se bazează pe diferite fenomene şi efecte fizice, în care modificarea temperaturii determină modificări ale unor proprietăţi sau caracteristici ale materialelor: variaţia dimensiunilor geometrice, variaţia rezistenţei electrice, apariţia unei tensiuni electromotoare de-a lungul joncţiunii a două metale, variaţia intensităţii radiaţei emise, variaţia frecvenţei de rezonanţă a unui cristal de cuarţ etc.

Acurateţea procesului de măsurare a temperaturii este foarte importantă pentru cele mai multe aplicaţii de control a diferitelor procese tehnologice.

Termocuplurile sunt capabile să măsoare temperaturi extreme dar necesită tehnici de realizare a temperaturii de referinţă, sunt neliniare şi au un nivel mic al semnalului de ieşire. Senzorii de temperatură cu semiconductori se pretează la realizarea lor sub formă integrată, au un nivel mare al semnalului de ieşire dar acoperă un domeniu relativ restrâns de temperaturi.

Termometrele cu rezistenţă metalică au o acurateţe şi o liniaritate mai bune, dar necesită o sursă de energie de excitare şi un circuit de masură de tip punte. Termistorii au cea mai mare sensibilitate dar sunt puternic neliniari.


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